Everything You Know About the Samurai Is Wrong?

  • Many years ago, in high school, I was a total otaku. I loved JRPGs, anime, and most of all samurai. I have always loved the idea of a lonely warrior who can match wits as well as blades. So, naturally I fell in love with anime such as the classic Ruroni Kenshin series, and when I heard that Hollywood was finally making a big budget samurai movie starring Tom Cruise I was very excited. I really liked The Last Samurai. But as I look back at the movie and my facilitation with samurai in general, I realize that everything that I believed about the samurai is wrong. So here are some common misconceptions and the facts about the real samurai.

    Samurai are the Ancient Warrior Class of Japan

    The Myth

    Many people when they talk about samurai have the image that the samurai go back to the founding of Japan and that they have always been an elevated class in Japanese society. Many people hear about the SPAM hierarchy system; Samurai, Peasants, Artisans, Merchants. But they are wrong…partially.


    Samurai have their beginnings in the Heian period (794-1185 CE). While this seems ancient to many, in the context of Japan this is far from ancient. In many ways, the samurai really became a class in the same time as European Knights, and we don’t consider them ancient. In the Heian period the “saburafu” (which means to serve), were basically hired bodyguards. A local lord would bring on some when he needed extra muscle for a trip or diplomatic mission.

    Samurai as a class really only came about after the reunification of Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi (in the late 1500s). He instituted the SPAM system, in order to prevent rich land owners from hiring on their own armies. Basically he gave the higher class people in the country a choice, you can join this new class as “samurai” and basically be a public servant (that is dependent entirely on the government for support) but with more rights, or you can stay in the peasant class own your own land and make wealth from that, but with fewer rights. Many chose to be samurai, and many chose not to. This would prevent more insurrections from the bottom of society.

    Samurai Lived By Bushido

    The Myth

    Everyone knows that true Samurai followed Bushido, the way of the warrior. It was a system similar to the European knight’s code of chivalry. It stressed loyalty, compassion, devotion to one’s leader, and that death was better than dishonor. Bushido would be the guiding light for the samurai throughout their lives, and the true samurai observed it as the meaning of his or her existence.


    So tell me, what book has all theses rules of the samurai? Where is the Bushido bible? There isn’t one. There never was one. Yes, there are some works like the Hagakurei or Miyamoto Musashi’s Book of Five Rings, but these hardly make up a rule book for samurai. These are often observations of the more famous samurai. The idea of Bushido was not something that existed throughout most of Japanese or samurai history. If you had asked Musashi about Bushido he probably would have looked at you very confused (and perhaps cut your head off). The term Bushido probably only came into use in the last 100 or 150 years. And speaking of honor….

    Samurai Were Endlessly Loyal to their Lords

    The Myth

    Anyone who knows anything about samurai knows that their sense of loyalty and honor knew no bounds. They would willingly die for the honor of their lord. They would even gladly take their own lives if their lords asked it of them, and they would die with a smile on their face. A true samurai would face an army alone if it meant even sparing their lord the least amount of difficulty or danger.


    This is kind of a shocking one. Samurai were mercenaries. Yeah, they only “honored” those that paid them. If you gave me a pretty large stipend, I’d honor you too, and if there was another guy that wants to pay me more, well, he gets my honor then. Until the Tokugawa era, the samurai system worked something like this. I am a local lord or a peasant with a lot of land and money. My next door neighbor is causing some trouble. I have peasant farmers who I can arm and make them fight for me, but so does my neighbor. So I want some tough guys to help me bust up my neighbor’s stuff and get him to either leave me alone or give me his land. So I put up a job notice. A bunch of tough guys show up at my place to hear my offer. If they are happy with the payment, they work for me. Once we finish they can move on to another contract. Not exactly the image you had in your mind of the loyal samurai, huh?

    Samurai could be, and often were, downright disloyal. It was not uncommon for samurai to show up to a lord’s call, take the money and then skip town, or even worse, secretly meet with the lord’s enemy and switch sides during battle. This is the reason that the stories of loyal and honorable samurai were so present because disloyalty was such a problem. Think about it, if all samurai were so loyal wouldn’t the stories of samurai bravely dying for their lords be so common no one would note them? The reasons these stories are so common is because they were hoping to make more samurai adhere to them.

    The Samurai’s Sword is His Soul

    The Myth

    The katana was the samurai’s ultimate weapon. A real samurai was proficient in sword fighting and was a one man army with his sword. Furthermore, the sword was part of a samurai’s soul. Only samurai were allowed to wear their sword as a mark of their office.


    Samurai didn’t use swords in battle. Originally samurai were mounted archers. They fought like the Mongols in that they would ride and fire from a mounted position. But as the style of Japanese warfare continued to evolve, they morphed into heavy cavalry, and mostly used pikes or spears. Think about trying to fight from atop a horse, with a sword. It is a really bad idea.

    Now the part about only samurai being allowed to carry swords is generally true, but that is only true after the Tokugawa shogunate came to power. Most of this idea of samurai and swords comes from this era. Why? Because there was no war. During times of peace, a mainly warrior caste has a lot of time for navel-gazing and writing treatises on their worth to the country at large. Think about it. In America today, we often debate having such a large military despite having no major enemies. Japan had the same debate during the Tokugawa shogunate. You had a large class of people who’s main reason for existing was to fight, but there was no one to fight. So the samurai had to justify their existence through myth-making, and practicing with the sword was one way of saying, “See, I’m totally ready to throw down if anybody messes with me!”

    In Conclusion

    The myth of the samurai is mainly a myth, much of it is straight up lies. But that is not always a bad thing. I like to think of it this way: there is Truth and truth. Truth with a “lowercase t” is the facts, while Truth “with a capital T” is the lesson.

    For example, in America, we have a saying about George Washington and a cherry tree. As a child, little George got a shiny new axe from his father and he promptly used it to cut down one of his father’s cherry trees. When his father confronted him about this, little George said, “Father, I can not tell a lie. I cut down that cherry tree.” His father was so impressed by his son’s honesty that he didn’t punish him. This story is entirely made up. But that does not make it a lie. It may not be the truth, but it tells a Truth. George Washington was an honorable and honest person.

    I think it is the same for the samurai. Everything in The Last Samurai may not be true, but it tells a more important Truth. The ideals that many people in Japan, and the world for that matter, strive for. So in that sense, even the silliest and outlandish myths of the samurai are True.

    Related Articles:
    Everything You Know About Ninjas Is Wrong?
    4 of the Most Legendary Samurai in History

    1. David Fox says:

      the author of this need to read Antony Cummins and Yoshie Minami’s translation and works on the Samurai and Ninja (Shinobi no mono..)

      1. AstroNerdBoy says:

        Thanks for those book tips. I’ve been toying with writing a novel for years, so I wanted to combine a realistic samurai and ninja element into it as well as a fantasy element. Those books look to be what the doctor ordered for the realistic element.

    2. It ticks me off a bit, but those are facts so, meh. I am just going to say some of my “opinions” then. In fact there was that forty seven ronin people which were actually real people who avenged their master albeit dying. Agreed that they are paid to work but because of samurai turned soldiers in some wars I have read in the past, there was not really that “much” betrayal that happened. For once, in an army, a samurai is not really given that much attention, the least if they were hired years ago by the general/master which by the pass of time turned to loyalty. There are some samurai who “pledge” themselves to their master which is as the same as the european knights, so I do not really know if the samurai you speak off were just really hired commoners that were then be just actually mercenaries, it only ticked me off a bit that you showed as much negative there is, they were still human. Even the european knights commited pillagery and rape, even disloyalty. I just didn’t want this “info” and “facts” to distort the “samurai” word, as we all know, the european knights did not have a bible too, and if you asked, obviously they won’t cuff off your head.

    3. Read this and meh.. There were only bits of truth in this… Is the author a historian of sorts or just some random dude who read a few stuffs about samurai? He just came as someone who wants to make a blog…did his info came from movies for the past 50 years? It just ticks me off that the authorcomes off as a know it all guy

    4. Anonymous says:

      You kept on saying ‘until tokugawa era’, so if it existed in that era its not a myth right?. And if loyalty is not true among samurai warriors how can you explain the 47 ronin.

    5. Anonymous says:

      The writer forgot to mention about ronins

    6. Mad says:

      For an author piece where are the references, where did he obtain said information. No bibliography no cigar… even Wikipedia has reference material.

    7. Anonymous says:

      What about the 47 Ronins? Are they myth?

    8. Anonymous says:

      Somehow i think the writer only read a book about samurai and totally believe that was the truth without consulting experts and didnt even do any extensive research about the term “samurai”.

    9. Anonymous says:

      Perhaps if the historian is from Japan himself or of a samurai lineage, then maybe I’d consider what he is saying. Does the author have other people of credit to validate his claims? If so, how many references does he have.

    10. Anonymous says:

      I’m not certain that I should believe the author’s references on the history of the Samurai as such. Is he from Japan? Where did he get his info and readings? It COULD be true and it could not be.

    11. Anonymous says:

      Nothing new for me and overall with some corrections I can confirm that most of what the author said is true. Of course I´m not a authority in this field but I practise classical bujutsu for nearly 12 years, my sensei for over 35 years, I travel every two years to Japan for training and have strong interest in japanese martial arts particular and in other martial arts (Wushu, FMA, HEMA e.t.c.) in general.

    12. Escaf says:

      I guess the being described was ninjas and ronins.

    13. Anonymous says:

      As a military historian, I agree with most of what this says, though it seems to try and create controversy needlessly for the sake of generating interest. The line that got me was saying how it is a terribly bad idea to fight from a horse with a sword…. ummm, no? Virtually every horse mounted warrior in history fought with swords. Many fought with lances and/or bows as well, but of course they fought with swords. Weird comment. But aside from that, sure. We mythologized the samurai for some reason as if they are supermen. They weren’t.

      The samurai were by and large analogous to European knights. There were loyal ones, and shamelessly mercenary ones. There are loyalty stories and honor stories surrounding both. The commenters getting worked up about the 47 ronin have to get a grip. One story of extreme desire to avenge their master hardly disproves his point. There are tons of loosely similar stories (whatever the people claim to have been fighting for) in other cultures as well. Some warriors or paid mercenaries or whatever were extremely loyal to the point of death, many weren’t. They were people, after all.

      Much of the Bushido legend was created and built to specifically create a myth of Japanese martial superiority after the country was opened to the west. The national army that crushed the samurai eventually took up that mantle and brainwashed its soldiers into believing this stuff. As an aside, It was part of what eventually made Japan turn to militarism and do the horrible things to their own people and (mostly) others during and preceding the Second World War. It is not really something to be proud of.

      The actual warriors during the era they were fighting were far more militarily competent than to go around killing themselves for no good reason. It has little to do with the later invented Bushido code.

      Note: chivalry in the West is also mythologized in a loosely similar way. Knights would sometimes do some seriously stupid things during the era when they were believing the “honor” nonsense. Generally, it is a good idea for soldiers to retreat in the face of overwhelming odds, not charge to the death for “honor”. And generally, people, including soldiers, tend to value self preservation. This is why in reality, battles don’t usually result in one side fighting to the death the way it is generally presented in movies. Morale breaks, commanders decide this is going to get worse rather than better, and they try to save themselves and hopefully their army to fight another day. It is the sensible and tactically smart thing to do. Samurai were generally decent warriors, not idiots.

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