在北海道的民族博物館了解日本的原住民 – 阿伊努族

  • 北海道
  • 另外
  • 旅遊景點
  • 阿伊努族(アイヌ/或稱愛努民族)是日本北海道的原住民族群。此外,他們也在日本本州的東北部和俄羅斯東海岸的薩哈林島上居住。現在要見到真正的阿伊努人並不容易。阿伊努族人在明治時代之前都一直受到壓迫。在18世紀,他們的人口更因為流行性疾病的關係而顯著下降。其後他們和本土日本人通婚,也將阿伊努人的血緣沖淡了。在1899年,阿伊努族被認定為“舊土人”,他們自動成為日本公民,並且被取消原本原住民的身份。直至2008年,日本才正式承認阿伊努人為原住民。

    文化

    The Ainu (Japanese: アイヌ) (Russian: Айны – Ajny) are the indigenous people of areas claimed by Japan 🇯🇵 (Hokkaido, & formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia 🇷🇺 (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands & formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula). Before the Tungus invasion coming from mainland Asia (Korea and northern China), the whole archipelago was inhabited by the Ainu. ⠀ ‘Ainu’ is the word Ainu identify themselves as, it comes from the name of their first male ancestor Aioina; Ainu means ‘human’ in the Ainu language. Ainu also identify themselves as Utari (‘comrade’ in the Ainu language). Official documents use both names. Other indigenous people related to them include the Kamchadal, Ryukyuan people, Yamato people and Taiwanese people. ⠀ Recent research suggests that Ainu culture originated from a merger of the Okhotsk and Satsumon cultures. In 1264, Ainu invaded the land of Nivkh people controlled by the Yuan Dynasty of Mongolia, resulting in battles between Ainu and the Chinese. Active contact between the Wajin (ethnically Japanese) and the Ainu of Ezochi (now known as Hokkaido) began in the 13th century. ⠀ The official number of the Ainu in Japan is 25,000, but unofficially is estimated at 200,000 due to many Ainu having been completely assimilated into Japanese society and, as a result, having no knowledge of their ancestry. The Ainu are numbered as 100-1000 in Russia (Russian Census of 2010), although unofficially there is also a larger number than that. The Ainu have emphasised that they are the natives of the Kuril islands and that the Japanese and Russians were both invaders. ⠀

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    阿伊努人的文化與日本人不同。阿伊努人崇拜萬物和火焰,因為他們相信自然界的一切都擁有自己的靈魂。他們依靠狩獵來獲取食物。他們的傳統食物包括熊、狼、狐狸、獾、馬、魚、蔬菜、草藥和根部植物;他們通過煮或烘烤來烹調食物,從不生吃。阿伊努族的男性通常有鬍鬚,因為他們除了在特定的時候之外不會剃鬚,而阿伊努族的女性通常會在嘴和前臂紋身。阿伊努人會使用阿伊努語溝通,但是這種語言現在已經逐漸失傳。

    阿伊努村

    為了表示對阿伊努族的尊重,日本政府在北海道建立了阿伊努民族博物館和文化村。這個位於白老郡的博物館是為了紀念人口逐漸減少的阿伊努人而建成的。博物館和文化村建於波羅多湖旁邊,重現了阿伊努族人的建築。這個博物館也被稱為“白老ポロトコタン”(Poroto Kotan),意思是白老大湖的村莊。

    村里的每個房子都展現了阿伊努人的文化和生活的上獨特的地方。你可以在這裡看到傳統的家庭風貌和一些展覽。在比較大的房子裡,每小時都會進行阿伊努族的舞蹈和歌唱表演。在2009年,他們的其中一種舞蹈就被聯合國教科文組織認定為非物質文化遺產。參觀者還可以參加一些活動,如樂器演奏、跳舞和木雕。

    這裡還有一個展覽,可以看到阿伊努人用作食物和藥物的各種植物,以及活的棕熊和雪白的獵犬。在博物館外面,你更可以購買到一些由阿伊努人製作的傳統手工藝品。

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